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Sunkara, D. Park, H. Hwang, R. Chantiwas, S. Soper and Y. Cho, Lab Chip, , 11, — It is well known that the rapid proliferation of information and communications technologies ICT has resulted in a global mountain of high-tech trash e-waste.
The problem with e-waste is not only the accumulation of electronic products and therefore the high disposal costs, but rather the hazardous substances present in their various components.
Therefore, the importance of recycling is evident in the area of resource and energy conservation, finding a new, second life for electronic components.
Spin coaters are widely used instruments useful to deposit uniform thin films to flat substrates . In microfluidics, the spin coating is used to coat a photoresist layer such as SU-8 or to bond separate substrates by using the adhesive properties of PDMS.
The spin coating technology is also used to fabricate thin polymer membranes. PDMS membranes are, for example, employed for a wide range of applications due to their several advantages.
For instance, being PDMS membrane permeable, they can be used to exchange gas in cell culture application for example or small molecule in filtration application .
In addition, as recently reported, spin coating is suitable to fabricate microchannels with a circular section . In this respect, we present here a tip to develop portable spin coaters by recycling computer fans and mobile phone wall chargers.
The most common fans in personal computers have a size of 80 mm, but the size can range from 40 to mm.
Typically, the 80 mm fans have a rotational speed of rpm that represent a suitable speed for common thin layering in microfluidics.
Connect the wall charger and the fan wires with insulated female and male wire pins. Afterwards, to turn on the fan, connect the female and male pins.
Using the tesa power strips, secure the substrate i. For devices larger than the fan, use an adeguate plastic stopper to elevate the device right picture.
Drip, by a micro pipette, the liquid containing the coating material on top of the substrate. Turn on the fan and spin coat the substrate for about 30 seconds time can vary depending on the substrate viscosity and coating thickness required.
Verify the coating by peeling off the PDMS membrane from the glass slide by tweezer left picture or analyze the microchannel profile by microscopy right panels.
In this tip a portable spin coater for microfluidic applications was developed using old electronic parts. A single fan can be re-used many times up to hundreds in our experience.
The amount of PDMS in form of droplets falling on the fan is quite limited. If necessary the fan can be cleaned after any use by simply rubbing it with a wipe soaked with some petroleum ether aka liquid paraffin or white petroleum.
In the worst cases very rarely occurring the fan can be easily replaced, since they are available for free by any old unused PC.
Hall, P. Underhill, and J. Halldorsson, E. Lucumi, R. Vecchione, G. Pitingolo, D. Guarnieri, A. Falanga, and P. There have been many reports on microfluidic devices for cell culture having upper and lower microchannels separated by a thin PDMS membrane.
In these devices, the lower channel often interferes with the microscopic observation of cells cultured in the upper channel. To avoid interference, a microdevice with a detachable lower channel was developed.
Mix the elastomer and curing agent at a mass ratio. De-gas the mixture under vacuum until no bubbles remain 20 min.
Punch the inlet and outlet holes at both the ends of the upper channel with a 2-mm biopsy punch. Remove the PMMA sheet, and punch a hole to connect the sheet with the lower channel by using a 1-mm biopsy punch from the membrane side.
Place the lower sheet on the coated glass slide Fig. Peel off the lower sheet from the glass slide and place the glue-coated surface of the sheet on the PDMS membrane Fig.
After 30 min of incubation, bond the lower sheet to a cover slip by plasma bonding. Introduce a cell suspension into the upper microchannel, which is manually precoated with 0.
Remove the lower sheet from the device carefully Fig. Place the rest of the device on a cover slip for observation with an inverted microscope Fig.
The cell culture channel upper is filled with water containing a red food color, while the lower channel is filled with water containing a blue food color.
Phase contrast images of cells e before and f after detachment of the lower sheet. We developed a microfluidic device with a detachable lower microchannel.
It is important that different bonding techniques be used for each side of the PDMS membrane. If the lower channel is filled with air and the device is incubated in a CO 2 incubator, dew condensation is often observed in the lower channel when the device is taken out from the incubator.
The condensation in the lower channel makes observation difficult Fig. This problem was solved with the detachable device.
The demand for microfluidics has steadily increased, due in part to the growing popularity of point-of-care devices . Often, microfluidic chips are fabricated in thermoplastics .
Thermoplastics are synthetic polymers that have gained popularity due to their ability to be molded into complex structures [3, 4].
They are often used as a safer and cheaper alternative to glass [3, 4]. However, proper sealing of these devices proves challenging, especially in the field of medical testing, where the demand for reliable devices is high.
For example, pressure-sensitive adhesives, common sealants, can limit the size of microfluidic channels; some adhesive can exhibit reactive groups that interfere with analytical processes that run on the chip .
Hence, a method of sealing that is free from the aforementioned limitations is needed. Here, a solvent-based method is presented. Polymethylmethacrylate PMMA , a thermoplastic, exhibits softening at temperatures above its glass transition temperature T g returning to its original state when cooled.
This transition introduces several direct bonding options . The pressure required for bonding even at this temperature is fairly high.
This can lead to imperfections in the channel dimensions, as the bulk of the material softens. The application of a weak solvent decreases T g only for the surface of the plastic, thus reducing the required temperature and pressure for the process.
The decreased pressure reduces the possibility of channel deformation. Furthermore, as the solvent-induced softening is limited only to the surface the first few microns , the deeper channel structures are not affected.
Hence, a direct solvent bonding method allows for an adhesive-free bonding and avoids a temperature-induced deformation. As a bonus, the mechanical properties of the bond are greatly enhanced .
It is worth noting that this approach is valid for microfluidic devices with channel depths greater than microns, typically for devices produced by a direct laser etching.
Another advantage of this technique is that it results in the production of sterile devices when the weak solvent is ethanol.
They can be manufactured quickly using basic equipment found in any laboratory . Bonding setup. A Alignment manifold B 3 wooden pins are used to keep the layers from moving.
Email: saifullah. The subject of droplet microfluidics has grown in importance among researchers in chemistry, physics and biology, hence it has found applications in drug delivery, encapsulation, single-cell analysis, pickering-emulsion and phase-separation.
For generating monodisperse droplets, various methods have been employed in constructing microfluidic devices.
Small channel-diameters attained by clean-room soft lithography is the most precise technique for fabricating microfluidic devices. Therefore, the cost and special clean-room training restricts its wide-spread application.
Recently, a rapid prototyping technique for microfluidics has been reported by employing laser-patterned tape 4 This technique relies on computer-controlled CO 2 laser beam.
This work was further simplified by manual razor patterned tape-based prototyping for patterning mammalian cells. Hence, our approach may well serve as one of the simplest approaches to fabricate droplet microfluidic generators.
Figure 1 outlines the prototyping procedure. Prototyping begins by attaching adhesive tape on a flat glass substrate. With a sharp razor-blade, the tape is cut into fine parallel strips.
Next the tape is removed from the regions outside the fine strips. The junction is pressed gently to ensure the strips are well attached.
These adhering strips of tape serve as a master for PDMS-based replica casting. A mixture of PDMS silicone elastomer base and a curing agent in ratio is poured on top of the master within a plastic petri dish.
Cured PDMS replica is then cut and peeled-off from the master. The master can be used repeatedly to fabricate multiple copies of the PDMS replica by following the afore-mentioned steps.
Inlet and outlet holes are drilled through PDMS replica, which is then bonded on a glass substrate, after both replica and glass has been exposed to oxygen plasma.
The technique is easily extended to fabricate T-junction or double T-junction prototypes Figure 1h and i. As the outer flow-rate is increased, the regime is found to shift from dripping at lower flow-rate to jetting at higher flow-rate Figure 2 c.
For lowest flow-rate, the aqueous-phase breaks into elongated plugs, while at higher flow-rates regular drops are pinched off.
Figure 2b shows the droplet-size as a function of Ca. Rapid Prototyping of Microfluidic Systems in Poly dimethyl siloxane. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a laser-patterned tape J.
Adhesive-tape soft lithography for patterning mammalian cells: application to wound-healing assays. BioTechniques, , 53 — Greiner, A.
Microfluidic devices are used for many different types of experiments across the medical, ecological and evolutionary disciplines Park et al.
For example, microfluidic devices for microbial experiments require inoculation into smaller chambers that simulate natural microbial environments such as porous soils Or et al.
These devices often involve complicated pump setups and irreversible seals. We developed a technique that requires only common lab equipment and makes the device reusable while also allowing the microbes to grow undisturbed based on Tekwa et al.
Here, we provide a detailed guide for the assembly and the previously undocumented non-destructive disassembly of polydimethylsiloxane PDMS experimental devices to recover microbes in situ , which can then be plated for relative counts and further molecular analyses of population changes.
This is complemented by videos for each step. Figure 1: Microfluidic device containing 14 habitats on an elastomer PDMS layer pressed onto a 60mm x 24mm glass cover slip.
This device is used to test the effects of habitat patchiness on microbe dynamics. Habitats were dyed blue for visualization.
For more information see Tekwa et al. Figure 4. View of an inoculated and incubated device, looking through the bottom of a petri dish.
The recovery technique can be used to estimate relative proportions of different types of microbes e. Unlike in Tekwa et al. These videos go through the specific procedure that we used to perform experiments on competition and cooperation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and may be useful in determining specific amounts of media, growth times, etc.
Cho, H. Self-organization in high-density bacterial colonies: efficient crowd control. PLoS biology , 5 11 , e Connell, J.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 46 , Folkesson, A. Adaptation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to the cystic fibrosis airway: an evolutionary perspective.
Nature reviews. Microbiology , 10 12 , Hol, F. Zooming in to see the bigger picture: Microfluidic and nanofabrication tools to study bacteria.
Science , , Keymer, J. Computation of mutual fitness by competing bacteria. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences , 51 , Or, D.
Physical constraints affecting bacterial habitats and activity in unsaturated porous media — a review. Advances in Water Resources , 30 6 , Park, S.
Motion to form a quorum. Image sensors have various analog and digital formats for data output, and some are more sensitive than others.
The data moving from the image sensor to its destination is susceptible to corruption or distortion from both internal e.
Preserving signal integrity begins with the design of the circuit to drive the LEDs. By employing PWM, the pulse magnitude and duration may be varied to employ a variable intensity i.
PWM can also drive the LEDs with a peak current higher than the maximum continuous current to achieve a higher lumen output.
Analog signals vs. PWM signals. Achieving proper shielding in extremely small chip-on-tip designs can be accomplished with micro-coax wiring and flex circuits that employ shielding layers to emulate a coax shield.
The challenge of preserving signal integrity is exacerbated when the distance from the sensor to the display or storage device is increased, reducing signal strength and multiplying opportunities for interference.
Solutions in these instances include amplifier circuits and low-loss conductors. Use of low-loss conductors becomes a compromise of increasing conductor size to the limits of the available space.
Solutions can be created with alternate geometries to take advantage of the space available. Two examples include employing flat wire and printing conductors directly onto enclosures and cannulae.
Of course, the interconnection needs to be environmentally sealed to prevent shorting and other influences of exposure to fluids.
In medical applications, this typically means saline solution, bodily fluids, and other substances. Successful sealing begins at the design stage by providing appropriate features for the sealing system to be employed.
This may mean including wells designed to accept and contain potting compounds, for example. Using properly selected potting compounds is one of the most practical ways to seal items of this scale.
Mechanical sealing systems using gaskets, for example, would increase the quantity of micro-scale components and further complicate proper assembly.
When selecting appropriate potting compounds, there are several factors to consider. Potting materials come in several different chemistries.
Single-part chemistries are typically designed to cure quickly using heat or UV light or over time at room temperature.
Room temperature curing materials experience viscosity changes over time, which adds to process variability and pot life i. Additional complications can arise from cure times that can extend over dozens of hours.
In these cases, sub-assemblies must be carefully fixtured to prevent movement or displacement during the curing process.
However, this approach results in high yield-risk, inefficient use of space, difficult handling, and a great deal of work in process WIP delays. UV curing materials cure very quickly, typically in a matter of seconds, but require that the entirety of the dispensed material can be exposed to the UV light source and not be in a shadowed area.
As such, UV materials are typically translucent. However, translucent materials can present a significant limitation when seeking to block areas of the image sensor from extraneous light.
Environmental protections that extend beyond potting processes are also required. In doing so, we assure our customers that they receive competitive products and we further develop our technological leadership with even newer technologies.
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Just send us a message. Personal consultation. Innovations arise from technology: Chip-in-Tip CIT endoscopes in the 1 mm diameter range The smallest image sensors in the endoscope tip decrease the diameter range of CIT endoscopes.However, translucent materials can present a significant Amazon Nyx when seeking to block areas of the image sensor from Facebook FirmengelГ¤nde light. Here, we demonstrate a simple treatment to remove these unwanted materials through solvent extraction. It may also be penalized or lacking valuable inbound links. Furthermore, as the solvent-induced softening is limited only to the surface the first few micronsthe deeper channel structures are not affected. Polydimethylsiloxane PDMS is one of the main materials, which is widely used for the fabrication of biological LOCs, due to its biocompatibility and ease of use. Goossens, and W. Science, Furthermore, after alignment marks are cut, no microscope is needed at all during the photolithography process, speeding Beste Spielothek in Preda finden fabrication of multiple masters. There are multiple lens technologies, including systems based upon ground glass elements, Beste Spielothek in Saint-Aubin finden elements, and graduated index GRIN lenses.